Jatropha curcas Linn also called the physic nut is plants that have been familiar to the public. In world war era, Jatropha oil is used as lubricants and aircraft fuel. As the name implies, this plant community was used as a hedge plant and as a traditional medicine, as well as fuel and lubricating oil. Development of Jatropha is very broad, originally from Central America, then spread to Africa and Asia. The extent of the development of Jatropha is because of the ease of growth.
According to a researcher, Jatropha curcas can live and grow from low-high altitude, low-high rainfall (300-2380 ml / year) and temperature range 20-26 Celsius. Because of the nature, Jatropha plant can grow on sandy soil, rocky and clay. Therefore, Jatropha can be developed on degraded land.
Jatropha curcas has a fruit that consists of fruit pulp, seeds and core shell beans. Core is a source of parts that produce oil as biodiesel by the beginning of the extraction process.
Oil content contained in seed is ranges from 25-35% dry weight based. Jatropha can produce 7.5 -10 tons / ha / year depending on the quality of seeds, Agro-climate soil fertility and maintenance. As a rough calculation crude, Jatropha oil (CJO) obtains 1.875 to 2.5 tons of oil / ha / year.
The process of oil extraction of Jatropha uses mechanically by a press machine. The Type of press equipment can be divided into two; hydraulic presses and screw presses. Each machine press has weaknesses and strength.
After the seed is dried and sorted based on quality, it goes to the mechanical press machines. The results are crude oil or crude Jatropha oil (CJO) and cake in the form of residual waste.
To purify, Crude Jatropha oil (CJO) is sent to filtration. The results are clean Jatropha oil and sludge waste. This oil can be used as a substitute fuel oil. It can be applied directly on the modification stove or mixed with kerosene.
To obtain biodiesel fuel, crude oil is performed transesterification and esterification process. Transesterification process is the process of reduction in free fatty acid content. If levels are too high, it is necessary to advance the process of esterification.